Southern Horrors Lynch Law

Tuesday, March 29, 2022 11:38:49 PM

Southern Horrors Lynch Law



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SOUTHERN HORRORS: LYNCH LAW IN ALL ITS PHASES by Ida B. Wells-Barnett FULL AUDIOBOOK

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Frederick Douglass had written an article noting three eras of "Southern barbarism" and the excuses that Whites claimed in each period. Wells-Barnett explored these in detail in her The Red Record. Wells-Barnett gave 14 pages of statistics related to lynching cases committed from to ; she also included pages of graphic accounts detailing specific lynchings. She noted that her data was taken from articles by White correspondents, White press bureaus, and White newspapers. Southern Horrors and The Red Record ' s documentation of lynchings captured the attention of Northerners who knew little about lynching or accepted the common explanation that Black men deserved this fate.

According to the Equal Justice Initiative , African Americans were lynched in the South , alone, between and , [44] of which, 25 percent were accused of sexual assault and nearly 30 percent, murder. Despite Wells-Barnett's attempt to garner support among White Americans against lynching, she believed that her campaign could not overturn the economic interests Whites had in using lynching as an instrument to maintain Southern order and discourage Black economic ventures. Ultimately, Wells-Barnett concluded that appealing to reason and compassion would not succeed in gaining criminalization of lynching by Southern Whites. Wells-Barnett concluded that perhaps armed resistance was the only defense against lynching. Meanwhile, she extended her efforts to gain support of such powerful White nations as Britain to shame and sanction the racist practices of America.

Wells travelled twice to Britain in her campaign against lynching, the first time in and the second in She and her supporters in America saw these tours as an opportunity for her to reach larger, White audiences with her anti-lynching campaign, something she had been unable to accomplish in America. She found sympathetic audiences in Britain, already shocked by reports of lynching in America. Impey, a Quaker abolitionist who published the journal Anti-Caste , [50] had attended several of Wells' lectures while traveling in America. Mayo was a well-known writer and poet who wrote under the name of Edward Garrett.

Both women had read of the particularly gruesome lynching of Henry Smith in Texas and wanted to organize a speaking tour to call attention to American lynchings. They asked Frederick Douglass to make the trip, but he declined, citing his age and health. He then suggested Wells, who enthusiastically accepted the invitation. It was the only major White paper that persistently denounced lynching. Wells toured England, Scotland and Wales for two months, addressing audiences of thousands, [55] and rallying a moral crusade among the British.

On the last night of her second tour, the London Anti-Lynching Committee was established — reportedly the first anti-lynching organization in the world. As a result of her two lecture tours in Britain, she received significant coverage in the British and American press. Many of the articles published at the time of her return to the United States were hostile personal critiques, rather than reports of her anti-lynching positions and beliefs.

The New York Times , for example, called her "a slanderous and nasty-nasty-minded Mulatress". Ferdinand Lee Barnett, who lived in Chicago, was a prominent attorney, civil rights activist, and journalist. Like Wells, he spoke widely against lynchings and for the civil rights of African Americans. Wells and Barnett had met in , working together on a pamphlet protesting the lack of Black representation at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in Wells began writing for the paper in , later acquired a partial ownership interest, and after marrying Barnett, assumed the role of editor. Wells' marriage to Barnett was a legal union as well as a partnership of ideas and actions. Both were journalists, and both were established activists with a shared commitment to civil rights.

In an interview, Wells' daughter Alfreda said that the two had "like interests" and that their journalist careers were "intertwined". This sort of close working relationship between a wife and husband was unusual at the time, as women often played more traditional domestic roles in a marriage. Charles Aked Barnett's middle name was the namesake of Charles Frederic Aked — , an influential British-born-turned-American progressive Protestant clergyman who, in , while pastor of the Pembrooke Baptist Church in Liverpool , England, befriended Wells, endorsed her anti-lynching campaign, and hosted her in during her second speaking tour in England in In a chapter of Wells' posthumous autobiography, Crusade For Justice, titled "A Divided Duty", she described the difficult challenge of splitting her time between family and work.

She continued to work after the birth of her first child, traveling and bringing the infant Charles with her. Although she tried to balance her roles as a mother and as a national activist, it was alleged that she was not always successful. Susan B. Anthony said she seemed "distracted". Her establishment of Chicago's first kindergarten prioritizing Black children, located in the lecture room of the Bethel AME Church, demonstrates how her public activism and her personal life were connected; as her great-granddaughter Michelle Duster notes: "When her older children started getting of school age, then she recognized that black children did not have the same kind of educational opportunities as some other students And so, her attitude was, 'Well since it doesn't exist, we'll create it ourselves.

The 19th century's acknowledged leader for African-American civil rights, Frederick Douglass praised Wells' work, giving her introductions and sometimes financial support for her investigations. When he died in , Wells was perhaps at the height of her notoriety, but many men and women were ambivalent or against a woman taking the lead in Black civil rights at a time when women were not seen as, and often not allowed to be, leaders by the wider society. Washington , his rival, W.

Du Bois , and more traditionally minded women activists, Wells often came to be seen as too radical. Wells encountered and sometimes collaborated with the others, but they also had many disagreements, while also competing for attention for their ideas and programs. For example, there are differing in accounts for why Wells' name was excluded from the original list of founders of the NAACP. Having settled in Chicago, Wells continued her anti-lynching work while becoming more focused on the civil rights of African Americans. She worked with national civil rights leaders to protest a major exhibition, she was active in the national women's club movement, and she ultimately ran for the Illinois State Senate.

She also was passionate about women's rights and suffrage. She was a spokeswoman and an advocate for women being successful in the workplace, having equal opportunities, and creating a name for themselves. In , the World's Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago. Together with Frederick Douglass and other Black leaders, Wells organized a Black boycott of the fair, for the fair's lack of representation of African American achievement in the exhibits.

Living in Chicago in the late 19th century, Wells was very active in the national Woman's club movement. It would later be renamed the Ida B. Wells Club in her honor. In , Wells took part in the meeting in Washington, D. Wells Club went on to do many things. The club advocated to have a housing project in Chicago named after the founder, Ida B. Wells, and succeeded, making history in as the first housing project named after a woman of color.

Wells received much support from other social activists and her fellow club women. Frederick Douglass praised her work: "You have done your people and mine a service. What a revelation of existing conditions your writing has been for me. Despite Douglass' praise, Wells was becoming a controversial figure among local and national women's clubs. Writing to the president of the association, Mary Terrell , Chicago organizers of the event stated that they would not cooperate in the meeting if it included Wells. When Wells learned that Terrell had agreed to exclude Wells, she called it "a staggering blow". In , Wells was outraged when the Chicago Tribune published a series of articles suggesting adoption of a system of racial segregation in public schools.

Given her experience as a school teacher in segregated systems in the South, she wrote to the publisher on the failures of segregated school systems and the successes of integrated public schools. She then went to his office and lobbied him. Unsatisfied, she enlisted the social reformer Jane Addams in her cause. Wells and the pressure group she put together with Addams are credited with stopping the adoption of an officially segregated school system. Wells' role in the U. Her view of women's enfranchisement was pragmatic and political. As a prominent Black suffragist, Wells held strong positions against racism, violence and lynching that brought her into conflict with leaders of largely White suffrage organizations.

The WCTU was a predominantly White women's organization, with branches in every state and a growing membership, including in the Southern United States, where segregation laws and lynching occurred. With roots in the call for temperance and sobriety, the organization later became a powerful advocate of suffrage in the U. In Wells and Willard travelled separately to Britain on lecture tours. Willard was promoting temperance as well as suffrage for women, and Wells was calling attention to lynching in the U. The basis of their dispute was Wells' public statements that Willard was silent on the issue of lynching. The safety of women, of childhood, of the home is menaced in a thousand localities, so that men dare not go beyond the sight of their own roof tree.

Although Willard and her prominent supporter Lady Somerset were critical of Wells' comments, Wells was able to turn that into her favor, portraying their criticisms as attempts by powerful White leaders to "crush an insignificant colored woman". Wells also dedicated a chapter in The Red Record to juxtapose the different positions that she and Willard held. The chapter titled "Miss Willard's Attitude" condemned Willard for using rhetoric that promoted violence and other crimes against African Americans in America.

The NFL also assisted with job leads and entrepreneurial opportunities for new arrivals in Chicago from Southern States, notably those of the Great Migration. In the years following her dispute with Willard, Wells continued her anti-lynching campaign and organizing in Chicago. She focused her work on Black women's suffrage in the city following the enactment of a new state law enabling partial women's suffrage. The Illinois Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill of see Women's suffrage in Illinois gave women in the state the right to vote for presidential electors, mayor, aldermen and most other local offices; but not for governor, state representatives or members of Congress.

The prospect of passing the act, even one of partial enfranchisement, was the impetus for Wells and her White colleague Belle Squire to organize the Alpha Suffrage Club in Chicago on January 30, Two years after its founding, the club played a significant role in electing Oscar De Priest as the first African-American alderman in Chicago. Marching the day before the inauguration of Woodrow Wilson as president in , suffragists from across the country gathered to demand universal suffrage. On the day of the march, the head of the Illinois delegation told the Wells delegates that the NAWSA wanted "to keep the delegation entirely White", [] and all African-American suffragists, including Wells, were to walk at the end of the parade in a "colored delegation".

Instead of going to the back with other African Americans, however, Wells waited with spectators as the parade was underway, and stepped into the White Illinois delegation as they passed by. She visibly linked arms with her White suffragist colleagues, Squire and Virginia Brooks , for the rest of the parade, demonstrating, according to The Chicago Defender , the universality of the women's civil rights movement. During World War I , the U. Louis Race Riots. In the s, she participated in the struggle for African-American workers' rights, urging Black women's organizations to support the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters , as it tried to gain legitimacy.

Her feelings toward the Republican Party became more mixed due to what she viewed as the Hoover administration 's poor stance on civil rights and attempts to promote a " Lily-White " policy in Southern Republican organizations. In , Wells unsuccessfully sought elective office, running as an Independent for a seat in the Illinois Senate , against the Republican Party candidate, Adelbert Roberts. Wells-Barnett explained that the defense of White women's honor allowed Southern White men to get away with murder by projecting their own history of sexual violence onto Black men.

Her call for all races and genders to be accountable for their actions showed African-American women that they can speak out and fight for their rights. By portraying the horrors of lynching, she worked to show that racial and gender discrimination are linked, furthering the Black feminist cause. Wells began writing her autobiography, Crusade for Justice , but never finished the book; it would be posthumously published, edited by her daughter Alfreda Barnett Duster , in , as Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B.

Wells died of uremia kidney failure in Chicago on March 25, , at the age of Since Wells' death, with the rise of midth-century civil rights activism, and the posthumous publication of her autobiography, interest in her life and legacy has grown. Awards have been established in her name by the National Association of Black Journalists , [] the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University , [] the Coordinating Council for Women in History, [] the Type Investigations formerly the Investigative Fund , [] the University of Louisville , [] and the New York County Lawyers' Association awarded annually since , [] among many others.

The Ida B. Wells Memorial Foundation and the Ida B. Wells Museum have also been established to protect, preserve and promote Wells' legacy. Wells-Barnett Museum in her honor that acts as a cultural center of African-American history. Wells Homes in her honor. The buildings were demolished in August due to changing demographics and ideas about such housing. In , she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. The stamp, designed by Thomas Blackshear II , features a portrait of Wells illustrated from a composite of photographs of her taken during the mids.

She is the 13th in the Postal Service's Black Heritage series. In , the Harvard Kennedy School commissioned a portrait of Wells. Wells Association was founded by University of Memphis philosophy graduate students to promote discussion of philosophical issues arising from the African-American experience and to provide a context in which to mentor undergraduates. Wells conference every year since On February 12, , Mary E.

Wells by declaring March 25, — the eighty-ninth anniversary of her death — as Ida B. Wells Day in the State of Illinois. In , the Ida B. Wells Society for Investigative Reporting was launched in Memphis, Tennessee, with the purpose of promoting investigative journalism. In , the National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened; it includes a reflection space dedicated to Wells, a selection of quotes by her, and a stone inscribed with her name. On March 8, , The New York Times published a belated obituary for her, [2] in a series marking International Women's Day and entitled "Overlooked" that set out to acknowledge that, since , its obituary pages had been dominated by White men, while notable women — including Wells — had been ignored.

Wells Drive ; [] it is the first downtown Chicago street named for a woman of color. On February 12, , a blue plaque , provided by the Nubian Jak Community Trust , was unveiled by the mayor of Birmingham , Yvonne Mosquito , at the Edgbaston Community Centre, Birmingham , England, commemorating Wells' stay in a house on the exact site of 66 Gough Road where she stayed in during her speaking tour of the British Isles. On July 13, , a marker for her was dedicated in Mississippi, on the northeast corner of Holly Springs' Courthouse Square. The Extra Mile pays homage to Americans such as Wells who set aside their own self-interest in order to help others and who successfully brought positive social change to the United States.

In , a new middle school in Washington, D. On May 4, , she was posthumously awarded a Pulitzer Prize special citation , "[f]or her outstanding and courageous reporting on the horrific and vicious violence against African Americans during the era of lynching. Wells Plaza". In Chicago erected a monument to Wells in the Bronzeville neighborhood, near where she lived and close to the site of the former Ida B. Wells Homes housing project. Wells National Monument, it was created by sculptor Richard Hunt. Also in , Memphis dedicated a new Ida B.

Wells plaza with a life-sized statue of Wells. The documentary featured excerpts of Wells' memoirs read by Toni Morrison. Wells , written by Wendy D. Jones born and starring Janice Jenkins, [] was produced. It draws on historical incidents and speeches from Wells' autobiography, and features fictional letters to a friend. Katz, [b] [] including then-student Chadwick Boseman among the cast. The play is inspired by the real-life events that compelled a year-old Ida B.

Wells to launch an anti-lynching crusade from Memphis in using her newspaper, Free Speech. Wells' life is the subject of Constant Star , a widely performed musical drama by Tazewell Thompson , [] who was inspired to write it by the documentary Ida B. Wells: A Passion for Justice. The film dramatizes a moment during the Woman Suffrage Parade of when Wells ignored instructions to march with the segregated parade units and crossed the lines to march with the other members of her Illinois chapter.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. African-American civil rights activist — For the American lawyer, see Ida V. Wells, c. Holly Springs, Mississippi , U. Chicago, Illinois , U. Wells-Barnett Iola pen name. Rust College Fisk University. Republican Independent. Ferdinand L. Main articles: Anti-lynching movement and Lynching in the United States.

Main article: People's Grocery lynchings. Dear Miss Wells:. See also: Ida B. The Illinois Senate the Upper House passed it May 7, , by a vote of 29 to 15 — three more than the required majority. June 11, The House posed a stiffer challenge, right up to the day of the vote. June 26, Governor Edward F. Dunne signed the bill June 26, , in Springfield. The signing ceremony was filmed for the movies. Hentoff March 28, Wells, , p. Wells Is Unveiled In Chicago". Retrieved August 7, Wells Monument". Allen, James E. Santa Fe : Twin Palms Publisher. Print: Book 1st ed. Chicago : Alpha Suffrage Club. Asante, Molefi Kete Amherst, New York : Prometheus Books. ISBN LCCN OCLC February Department of State. ISSN Retrieved March 1, Bay, Mia Retrieved September 15, Berenson, Tessa C.

July 16, Wells' Birthday". ISSN X. Retrieved January 14, Biography Editors January 16, [April 27, ]. Retrieved November 7, Black, Patti Carr February Mississippi History Now online publication. Mississippi Historical Society. Retrieved February 13, Boissoneault, Lorraine January 21, Smithsonian online. Retrieved November 20, Brody, Richard July 27, Wells: A Passion for Justice ". Goings on About Town: Movies.

The New Yorker. Retrieved November 12, OCLC all editions. Busby, Margaret , ed. Wells Barnett ". Daughters of Africa. Retrieved November 1, — via Internet Archive. Article: Daughters of Africa CS1 maint: postscript link. Cardon, Dustin February 27, Jackson Free Press blog. Jackson, Mississippi. Retrieved February 14, Macmillan's Magazine. Wells Graduate Student Fellowship". Retrieved February 22, Supreme Court of Tennessee; April Term, ". Southwestern Reporter. May 16, — August 1, Paul : West Publishing Company : 5. Retrieved May 12, — via Internet Archive. Chicago Literary Hall of Fame. November 15, Retrieved October 17, CS1 maint: postscript link Cruickshank, Matt doodler July 16, Wells' rd Birthday".

Google Doodle. Google Doodles Archive. CS1 maint: postscript link Curry, Tommy J. Fall Wells-Barnett's Use of T. Charles Sanders Peirce Society. S2CID Danielle, Britni March 8, Wells Her Due". Retrieved March 31, Tennessee Encyclopedia online. Tennessee Historical Society. Doenecke, Justus Drew Yorkin Publications The Gale Group. Retrieved November 7, — via Internet Archive. Wells; October 25, ". In Gabbidon, Shaun L. Sage Publications. Wells-Barnett and her book 'Crusade for Justice ' " verbal transcript and sound recording radio transcript.

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt []. Retrieved October 28, — via Internet Archive. Wells From England in self published. CS1 maint: postscript link Elliott, Mark Emory New York : Oxford University Press. CS1 maint: postscript link Enright, Mairead March 8, Flexner, Eleanor ; Fitzpatrick, Ellen Frances [, , ]. Fradin, Dennis B. Wells: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement.

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Franklin, Vincent P. Oxford University Press. Giddings, Paula J. Wells and the Campaign Against Lynching. Amistad Press. In Mason, Patrick Leon ed. Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Retrieved March 8, In Moore, John Hartwell ed. Retrieved October 18, — via Internet Archive. Goings, Kenneth W. October 7, [October 8, ]. Tennessee Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 5, Gyimah, Miriam C. In Boyce Davies, Carole ed. October 22, Retrieved April 23, Duster, siblings and great-grandchildren of Ida B. Retrieved November 9, Jones, Wendy D. Retrieved November 3, The article is a short autobiography connected to the author's book, An Extraordinary Life: Josephine E. Morgantown : West Virginia University. Retrieved November 17, OCLC , Montgomery, Alabama : Equal Justice Initiative.

University of Illinois Press. Atlanta, Georgia : Commission on Interracial Cooperation. BBC Radio 4 audio archive of a radio broadcast. Great Lives ; Series 34 ; Episode 3 of 9. Retrieved May 30, San Diego Jewish World online. Retrieved July 17, Klinger, among other things, is the founder of the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation. CS1 maint: postscript link Mann, Susan A. Summer Ecofeminism and Environmental Justice".

Feminist Formations. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press. JSTOR Matthews, Dasha February 21, Wells: Suffragist, Feminist, and Leader". Retrieved October 8, McBride, Jennifer [ c. Wells: Crusade for Justice" online. Webster University. Retrieved January 30, Note: McBride, who graduated from Webster University in , authored the essay while enrolled in an advanced seminar with Linda M.

Woolf, Ph. Retrieved October 28, McKinney, Megan August 19, Chicago Classic Magazine. Retrieved October 26, McMurry, Linda O. Retrieved November 25, Mississippi Writers Trail November 7, Jackson : Mississippi Arts Commission. Retrieved June 16, CS1 maint: postscript link Mitchell, Judylynn November 11, The Daily Times. Salisbury, Maryland. Retrieved October 26, — via Newspapers.

Myrick-Harris, Clarissa July [online version: June 30, ]. Wells Award". Lexington : University of Kentucky Libraries. Special Collections. Retrieved November 2, August 4, National Women's Hall of Fame November 15, Seneca Falls, New York. Retrieved November 22, Selected in , posthumously inducted in a ceremony at the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum in Rochester on November 15, WBEZ Chicago local production.

NPR affiliate. Wells Barnett Award Reception". Retrieved November 3, — via YouTube. Northwestern University. Chapel Hill : Ida B. Retrieved February 16, — via idabwellssociety. Paisana, Joanne Madin Vieira Wells" PDF. ISSN ejournal. In Finkelman, Paul ed. Pavithra, Mohan August 8, Fast Company blog. Wells Battled Jim Crow in Memphis". Memphis monthly magazine. Contemporary Media.

Retrieved October 25, CS1 maint: postscript link Perkins, Kathy A. Retrieved November 6, — via Internet Archive. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang. Pinar offers a description of the accusations made between Willard and Wells in England in CS1 maint: postscript link Pinar, William Frederick Portrait of Ida B. Wells April 6, Cambridge : Harvard Kennedy School Forum. John F. Kennedy, Jr. Winter — Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society book review.

Re-published Robert W. Rydell ed. Retrieved May 5, Retrieved November 11, If this work can contribute in any way toward proving this, and at the same time arouse the conscience of the American people to a demand for justice to every citizen, and punishment by law for the lawless, I shall feel I have done my race a service. Other considerations are of minor importance. To the Afro-American women of New York and Brooklyn, whose race love, earnest zeal and unselfish effort at Lyric Hall, in the City of New York, on the night of October 5, made possible its publication, this pamphlet is gratefully dedicated by the author.

Let me give you thanks for your faithful paper on the lynch abomination now generally practiced against colored people in the South. There has been no word equal to it in convincing power. I have spoken, but my word is feeble in comparison. You give us what you know and testify from actual knowledge. You have dealt with the facts with cool, painstaking fidelity and left those naked and uncontradicted facts to speak for themselves. Brave woman! If American conscience were only half alive, if the American church and clergy were only half christianized, if American moral sensibility were not hardened by persistent infliction of outrage and crime against colored people, a scream of horror, shame and indignation would rise to Heaven wherever your pamphlet shall be read.

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