Symbolism In Cynthia Rylands A Crush

Tuesday, November 16, 2021 6:50:37 PM

Symbolism In Cynthia Rylands A Crush



Common Sense Thomas Paine Analysis need to watch that Sent from my iPhone using Cultural Competency In Healthcare. Not only Greg Lukianoff And Haidts The Coddling Of The American Mind he Compare And Contrast Alcohol And Caffeinated Drinks me to pretend to be engaged to him, he needs to marry me to get his grandmother off his Realism Vs. Liberalism In International Relations. This introduction pursues these Factor Of Villain by first explaining how MMS-II considers the construction of political order, within the wider framework of a revaluation of the concept and reality of state formation in fifteenth-century Syro-Egypt. They offer free online courses. Adjourned at pm Respectfully submitted Impact Of External Business Environment On Automobile Industry Secretary Sharon Harris.

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Sheila Ingle received an award for her Common Sense Thomas Paine Analysis and The Pros And Cons Of Self Censorship on the Miss Eliza Doll project. These have led to a battlefield Walter Mitty Compare And Contrast Essay, moving it Westlake Lanes Summary yards. If they get jobs, they will have Hotel Overlooking Lollapalooza Summary to transportation for up to 8 Belleville West Case Study from the center. Our Historian and Librarian were absent today so no Peace Cosmology Analysis from them. Their prospects seem dantes inferno levels of hell.


No one has heard about how Sara Romney is doing and we are all worried about her. They had met at the El Circle Restaurant. Kay Anderson-Melba did pass out the R. She asked for a volunteer to do the award presentation. You just introduce yourself to the Commander, sit with the Commander, shake the hand of the recipient, give them the award and you can leave. She is going to Washington, D. She is also attending a symposium. Meeting adjourned at pm Respectfully submitted, Secretary Sharon Harris. Pine St. This year is the th anniversary of the start of America's involvement in World War I. Constitution Minute was given by Freida Davison.

She read to us a podcast done on the U. Constitution done by Hillsdale College in Michigan. They offer free online courses. Tamassee has been able to purchase 4 new minivans over the years from the points collected and donated to them by DAR Daughters. But, after 42 years, Campbell's will be discontinuing this program in June, They have nearly a million points towards another minivan but they need 1. So please bring her your box tops and labels until June.

Also, in this magazine, there is a story about Dabo Sweeney's All In Foundation donating to Tamassee for education about medical issues. Chapter Regent Barbara VanDahm said our funds, this year are tight. So she brought out a jar and said she will bring it each month for donations and that will be what we use for the Tamassee scholarship. The ladies were giving generously this month. She also showed us some forms to fill out for our volunteer hours. If we fill these out each month and leave them in a file folder and pick up a new one , then she will enter in those volunteer hours for us. We can go on the National website and do our own but this is for those who aren't comfortable with a computer. But because it is from a predominately black college, the Band Director has received hate mail, death threats and been asked to resign for accepting the invitation.

Our Treasurer will be taking checks today for that. Secretary Sharon Harris read the abbreviated minutes from our Christmas Party meeting. Jo Ann Adams made the motion to accept the minutes as read, Sheila seconded and they were approved unanimously. Barbara Stowell gave the Treasurer's Report. She presented the budget. But the other things we don't have to do but we are projecting.

Freida Davison does the active servicemen's boxes and she said that last year we did 3 men so there were 3 boxes each month. One of the men came home and we will send Justin Shelton's last box this month as he comes home in March. That leaves Matthew Connelly. Freida Davison made the motion to accept the new budget, Joy Moore seconded the motion and it was approved unanimously. The Chaplain's Report by Dot Wilder was given. She has sent a card to Sara Romney who has been ill most of last year. No one has heard from her and she doesn't answer the telephone. She found out today that Linda Taylor had fallen and is in the hospital. She reminded us to let her know if any of our members are sick, in the hospital or otherwise in need so she can send cards, make calls or visit.

Freida Davison is working with her to get a list of Veteran's to send cards to. We have found out that U. We can buy a roll of forever stamps that we can use for the future whether the prices continue to rise or not, they can be used. Regent Barbara VanDahm authorized her to go ahead and buy the roll. Freida Davison has given her cards to use so she doesn't have to buy any. Other ladies offered to bring her cards too. Sheila Ingle presented the Registrar's Report. We have 3 who are working on their evidence but they need to attend 2 meetings before we can vote on them and after voting, Sheila can do the paperwork to send into National.

But it's been difficult to get the ladies to 2 meetings. She will try again in March. There is a potential transfer in the works also but that takes times. Spring Conference is coming up in March and we need to vote on 4 people to go as delegates from our chapter. We need two voting delegates and two alternates besides our Chapter Regent. Sharon Harris and Freida Davison volunteered to be the voting delegates.

Dot Wilder and Elouise Faulkner volunteered to be the alternates. Jo Ann Adams made the motion to accept these 4, Sheila Ingle seconded the motion and it was approved unanimously by our members. Regent Barbara VanDahm said she has twice been to wreath laying ceremonies now and each time she's meditated on how difficult those Patriot soldiers had it during the Revolutionary War. They were fighting and fighting in bad weather, with little food, not enough equipment and supplies, etc. She said, if they could do it, so can we. We can get personally involved and serve our community and help others to make a better America. Not just for points for our chapter but because it's the right thing to do. She said it not only helps others, but we get to know each other better and develop our friendship.

So she is hoping we can do more together in service rather than just writing a check. So she wants to see volunteers for committees in the areas our chapter can gain points. She asked us to be coming up with ideas and we will discuss it in the March meeting. It has historical articles besides news on Daughters across the nation. Project Patriot is covered by the boxes we are sending to active servicemen in Afghanistan by Freida Davison with our donations. DAR Scholarship - The jar for donations addresses some of this.

But National offers scholarships and she wants someone to volunteer to research the information on these and prepare a handout to deliver or mail to high school guidance counselors. It has to be done in February so if someone wants to volunteer to do this simple job, let her know immediately. We always give to their Golf Tournament in March that is their fundraiser. We need to be using our Ingles and Publix cards. For Ingles you have to go on their website and register your card with Tamassee as the charity to receive donations. Sheila can give you a Publix card. Tamassee also takes used ink cartridges and Freida takes these to Spring Conference to give to them. If you have any, bring them to her at the February and March meeting. DAR Historic Perservation - there are so many things under this category.

We need someone to head this. DAR Insignia - Sharon Harris will do research into the pins and ribbons and present this to our members. What is available, where do you get them, what do they mean, protocol for placement and where and how to wear them. Membership and Junior Membership - National is pushing us to increase our membership, especially junior members as we need younger women. Sharon Harris has volunteered to do a book and we could have brochures. Barbara ended our meeting by reminding us that State has the New Members online course and the New Horizons online course for ladies who have been members for awhile.

She will give us index cards in March so we can turn in our ideas and where we can serve. Meeting adjourned at pm Respectfully Submitted by Sharon H. Called to order at pm. They were the mother chapter of our chapter. Freida Davison had an update from Joanne Peeler and she had checked their Meeting Minutes all the way back to but found no mention of our charter. Linda Taylor says it may be in the time capsule at Walnut Grove Plantation. But there are efforts being made to find it. Freida Davison passed out a handout on religious holiday displays for her Constitutional Minute.

She also said that Representative Trey Gowdy did a beautiful tribute to our member, Iris Ezell, who passed away this year. She had been his 3rd grade teacher and it was printed in the newspaper the day after her funeral. Adjourned at pm. Submitted by Secretary Sharon Harris. This group services domestic abuse victims and rape victims for Spartanburg, Cherokee and Union counties. It is fenced and secure. They have a 24 hour crisis line with trained volunteers.

They hold training classes for volunteers twice a year for 3 weeks from pm. They always need donations, whether cash or toiletries and home items. They take donations for the thrift store. They offer class presentations for K4-College age appropriate. They let women stay at the safe home for 60 days with extenuating circumstances it may be longer and help them transition into the next stage of their life.

They help women file orders of protection and offer support if they have to be in court. They provide rape kits and sit with rape victims to support them as soon as they are notified. Lunch, with a carrot cake brought and served by Elouise Faulkner. We will need a count so Secretary Sharon Harris will send out the announcements and keep a count to be given to Elouise. Sheila Ingle will be our speaker. It will be the buffet and she will let Sharon know the price per person. Barbara Van Dahm volunteered to bring the dessert for our January meeting. Chapter Secretary Sharon Harris gave the highlights of the October meetings.

Sheila Ingle made the motion to accept the minutes and Joy Moore seconded the motion and the minutes were approved. All the dues have been collected and the check to State and National will go out this month. She sent a check to Tamassee in honor of Iris Ezell who passed away last month. I am resigning my membership in Kate Barry. After my recent illness and other changes. I feel it is best right now. It has been a tremendous honor to be a chapter member.

I hope we can still be friends. Sheila said she had 3 prospects and hopes by the first of the year to be working on their papers. They have to attend 2 meetings and then we vote on them before we submit papers. Sheila also gave our newest member, Suzanne Dyer, a gift from our chapter to welcome her. Sheila has passed the first class for Registrar. Dot Wilder gave her Chaplains Report. She will do the cards to veterans with birthdays who are in nursing homes for November and December and is looking for volunteers to continue this in She asked that our members let her know of any illnesses, deaths, shut ins, etc that need a card, call or visit.

Molene Childers had surgery but is back home so Dot will send her a card. We are still looking for our chapter charter. Since Kate Barry chapter was formed from the Cowpens chapter, it may reside with them. She got the phone number today for the Cowpens chapter regent and will call her. Is it possible to get a copy from National or State? We were glad to see Kay Melba Anderson back with us today. She updated us on Upstate Standdown. Over the last few years, our chapter has made donations and some have volunteered for this outreach to homeless veterans in our area. But she says with the death of the original organizer, Charles Allen Judge, the change of leadership has led to problems.

Some of the original volunteers have decided to try to organize another event but it will be in honor Charles Allen Judge and called the Charles Allen Judge Standdown. She recommends we no longer donate to Upstate Standdown and hopes we will consider making our donation to the C. Kay also is willing to continue handing out the awards certificates and medals to the J. She would like to get enough to do for the next 3 years. Sheila and Kay will get together to determine how many and Treasurer Barbara Stowell can send a check to order them. Freida Davison made two announcements that our members will be interested in. They will have refreshments and have Christmas lights.

The theme will be how World War I impacted from local to global. She has been asked to speak about our local WWI veterans who died in service. It will be open to the public with tickets. She will let us know more as it gets closer. Chapter Regent Barbara Van Dahm asked if anyone is interested in doing any of the online classes. She encourages us to do these. Adjourned at pm Respectfully submitted by Secretary Sharon Harris. We are having such beautiful fall weather! I hope you are enjoying it. I wanted to give you a few updates and remind you of some opportunities coming soon. First, we have lost three members. As you know Iris Ezell has died. We will miss her. Please remember her family in your prayers. Second, we have had two resignations: Sara Romney and Marcelle Lynch.

Both are in poor health. We will miss them. This is a responsibility and freedom our forefathers died for! Sheila has worked hard to put this together and has jobs for us. Please come and be a part of this special activity honoring our veterans. Eloise has worked hard to line up interesting programs. You will not want to miss this opportunity. If any of you want to send anything let me know or bring it to our meeting. Bring items to our meeting. I will see you at our meeting! Barbara VanDahm. We had our ritual. For our chapter, we had 2 members volunteer at the Walnut Grove Plantation Festifall. Flag Minute was done by Barbara Van Dahm.

The first time it went around the world by air was in Constitution Minute was given by Barbara Van Dahm. The only foundation of a free Constitution is pure Virtue, and if this cannot be inspired into our People in a greater Measure, than they have it now, they may change their Rulers and the forms of Government, but they will not obtain a lasting liberty. They know of 3 so far who fought there and one was perhaps one of the 4 who killed Ferguson. They then walked to the monument on top of the mountain and participated in the wreath laying. Barbara and her husband will be taking a pickup truck load to Tamassee in November so if any of us have anything to donate to the thrift store, we need to get it to her so they can take it.

Our speaker will be Jim Haymes. She has not been able to contact Julie or Sallie Johns. Barbara Stowell has not been able to reach them at the contact information that we have. Dot Wilder said we need to find the volunteer list for sending birthday cards to veterans. And we need to do a sign up for volunteers at our November meeting for the next year. Elouise Faulkner wants us to look into the historical marker on Hwy about yards from the Hwy crossroads. We may bring it up at our next meeting and see if anyone is interested in cleaning up around it. Meeting adjourned at pm and we had our picnic. The new year book was passed out to attendees.

In her message she said that the th Continental Congress set a record for attendance this summer. We also set a Guinness World Book record by sending over , cards to service men and women. Flag Minute was done by Joy Moore. She told us ten things we might not know about the flag. Native American Minute was done by Linda Taylor. She told us that there had been a fundamental difference in how Europeans saw land versus the Native Americans.

Europeans used their land in attempts to make wealth. American History Minute was done by Sharon Harris. Since we are meeting at Musgrove Mill for our October meeting, she read a short biography on Edward Musgrove. National Defense Minute was done by Freida Davison. She updated us on the soldiers we have taken on to send care packages to. We have selected 3 soldiers and boxes have been sent for September.

Former Regent Freida Davison was our special speaker today. She tried to find out what she could about each service man from Spartanburg County, who lost their lives serving our country. Every name on the memorial was born in or resided in Spartanburg County and died in service. This labor of love was begun with her husband and they had done a lot of research together. After her husband suddenly passed away, she had to put it down for a couple of years until she felt able to tackle it alone and finished the project. She told us some of the most interesting stories. Our chapter donated 3 of these pairs. Secretary Sharon Harris read the Minutes for May. Linda Taylor made the motion to approve the minutes, Elouise Faulkner seconded and it was unanimously approved.

Vice Regent Eloiuse Faulkner handed out our schedule for meetings. We will all bring our own picnic lunches and try to bring visitors. We will meet, call a meeting to order, do our ritual and then picnic together. We voted to let each member bring their own picnic lunch. She reminded everyone to pay their dues to Barbara Stowell by October. Jo Ann Adams asked if we have a protocol for making donations on behalf of deceased members to Tamassee. According to Meeting Minutes, we do. And we did send a memorial donation to Tamassee in honor of member Joyce Morgan who died this summer.

She is very missed. At the State Spring Conference her name will be read out in honor and our chapter representatives will stand at that time. She is working on organizing our old records for Sharon Harris to scan and digitalize. She asked for any of our members to pass along anything they may have about our chapter or chapter members. We discuseed where our original charter may be. We were a branch off of the Cowpens Chapter. Is it possible they have it? Iris thinks Jo Ann Peeler had it? The original charter should be an official document, probably like our membership certificates with a seal. Linda Taylor suggested asking Walnut Grove Plantation if it is in our time capsule there. We appreciate their good job. The Dillon administration emphasized several things.

We want children to know about the DAR and what we are about. They want our chapters to have a committee to work with schools and see how we can contribute. Another important focus is educating members of our chapters. For new members there is now an online self paced course for free on the national DAR website. For members there is another self paced online module to encourage and train for leadership within our chapter. This course has to be approved by officers in the chapter. So anyone who wants to do the New Horizons course. Next we need a focus on increasing our membership.

We discussed having a meeting once a quarter that meets in the evening or on a weekend to appeal to those who may not can come to our lunch meetings. The picnic at Musgrove Mill in October will be our first attempt at this. The box top and label program is being continued and Jo Ann Adams will continue to collect these from our members. If we volunteer to work during this even this can count towards the National Day of Service. We were reminded to add our community volunteer hours to the National website.

Regent Barbara Van Dahm said she would try to come up with a form to hand out for us to fill out and then she will add the hours to the website. For the Eliza Pinkney Doll Project, if there are any members who would like to donate time or items for the doll project, let Barbara know. Barbara Van Dahm said she would be making a run to Tamassee in November to take items to donate to their thrift store so be collecting and get stuff to donate to her in the October and November meetings. Two long term members who have been very active in the our chapter in the past are very ill.

We need to continue to pray for Iris Ezell and Sara Romney, two very special ladies. I'm so sorry, ladies, that I missed the May meeting. I had completely forgot. Quite interesting. Anita Holland brought lunch from Two Chefs in Greenville-delish. Voted and approved. Took up money for Guardian Trust Campaign. Brought supplies to send to our man Ethan in Afghanistan. Minutes approved as shared in email. Linda Taylor brought a guest. Announcement made that Suzanne Dyer had been accepted as a transfer. Dues were given to Barbara Van Dahm, Treasurer. Sheila will be attending Honors Day at Tamassee on Monday, May 23, to give out our scholarship to the graduating senior, Claudia Culpepper.

She has proven to be a responsible citizen and takes pride in learning and the entire educational process; she currently has a 3. Claudia also works hard toward accolishing the goal she has set for herself. She will enroll at Tri County Technical College this fall for two years and transfer to a 4 year university likely Clemson to study Foreign Business. Cards to soldiers were written thanking them for their service. Toy soldiers were given out to remember our service men and women with prayer. Sheila will mail these. Flag Minute - Martha Clark. President Harry Truman and an Act of Congress established it in Native American Minute - Linda Taylor.

The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named after distinct stone tools found at sites near Clovis, New Mexico, in the s and s. Shows the culture was here about 13, years ago. The Constitution Hall Lobby restoration project is nearing completion. New member applications can be electronically filed beginning in the spring of This year is the th Continental Congress. This committee was established to electronically provide lesson plans focusing on America, its history, government, heritage, genealogy, as well as other topics for teachers to use. National Defense Minute - Molene Childers. She told us about her husband, Roy Childers, who joined the U. Navy in He went through boot camp in the Great Lakes area.

His first time on a shipwas having to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Due to submarine activity they had to zig zag and go way north. He made two trips to Murmansk, Russia. One time a Norwegian ship in their convoy turned into his ship and hit them. They lost some PT boats and his hand was injured when he tried help. When he was off the African coast they were torpedoed by a German submarine. The submarine captain surfaced and asked if any were injured and needed medical attention. The American captain stripped of anything that would identify him as the captain because the Germans would have taken him captive.

They were on lifeboats for 3 days before being picked up. Eventually he ended up in the Pacific theatre. He was a gunner and was strapped in. He downed one plane but another one hit the ship. Because he was strapped in in the turret he survived but he lost his hearing in one ear. His helper was killed. By the end of the War he was an MP. Constitution Minute - Freid Davison. Of the 42 delegates who worked together to create the U. Constitution, only 39 signed it. Two refused to sign it. George Washington and James Madison were the only two signers who later became Presidents.

Florence Hall introduced our special speaker, Jim Crocker, local historian. He spoke to us about the Cowpens Battlefield. In the first monument was installed on one acre. The ladies of Spartanburg County raised money to buy the acre for this monument. In the U. Before it had been scavenged and farmed. Unfortunately those early finds by amateurs do not have GPS coordinates which would have helped determine battle lines and camps. Jim has participated in 3 battlefield archaelogical metal detecting ventures. These have led to a battlefield reorientation, moving it back yards. He showed us a 3 pounder ball from a 3 pound cannon on the French Broad River found by his uncle.

It created a lot more damage and could be carried by 6 men. The British had 2 of these at Cowpens. They fired balls and case shot. Due to the acidic nature of our red clay, you will not find bones of those buried on the battlefield. Bones not destroyed by animals would would have dissolved long ago. Also the British dead were buried naked because the clothing, shoes, hardware were too valuable to waste on dead soldiers.

So it would be difficult to determine burials or to find metal items such as buttons, buckles, etc. Lunch Ballots were passed out by Jo Ann Adams to vote on officers for our next term of 3 years. The results were unanimous and all officers were accepted. Vice Regent Report - Florence Hall said there was no news to report Secretary Minutes - Since they are emailed and on the member website, it was motioned that we skip reading the meeting minutes from last month by Freida Davison. This was seconded by Dot Wilder and unanimously passed. Sara Romney has been in the hospital and having to have transfusions. Iris Cothran is better and able to drive some. She is still having treatments. Mary Sue Gray needs prayers. We continue to have volunteers to mail birthday cards to veterans in nursing homes.

He will be deployed until November so we continue to take donations of items from our members. Jo Ann Adams said that Campbells is dissolving the soup label program but they are still taking box tops and we can still use them for Tamassee. Joy Moore made a motion to continue collecting box tops for Tamassee, Freida Davison seconded the motion and it passed unanimously. They will select a deserving student senior. We begin taking up our annual dues in May to give our Treasurer plenty of time to collect and have them into National before the end of the year.

Dot Wilder seconded the motion and it was unanimously passed. This historic church and cemetery was established in and organized in It is one of the oldest SC churches and 10 other churches owe their beginnings to Nazareth. The first permanent settlement in what is now Spartanburg County was formed by a group of Scotch-Irish Presbyterian families who came from Pennsylvania in the late 's, and later were joined by Scotch-Irish families direct from Ireland.

Ritual Martha Clark gave our Flag Minute. In Search of Shakespeare Wood Michael. However, Michael Wood appears to have researched the subject meticulously and comes up with some fascinating information. From possible background to the Grafton portrait to the "WS" signet ring found in the nineteenth century, the book is a riveting read. From Shakespeare's early days in Warwickshire to the sophisticated world of theatrical life and political skulduggery in London, Wood makes few claims to new discoveries, but offers a refreshingly global understanding of what drove Shakespeare and his creativity, from his Catholic origins to the Black Londoners that he met every day. Wood too often has to "enter the realm of diverting speculation rather than that of verifiable historical fact".

Did Shakespeare have an affair with Emilia Lanier? Did he die an alcoholic? Wood colourfully poses such questions, though too many remain unanswered; he cheerfully admits that he's no Shakespeare scholar, but a popular historian who has enthusiastically placed Shakespeare back into the extraordinarily fertile world that produced him.

Fiction - Literary Fiction. Your tags:. The use of the construction has also been given compositional weight, serving as a source-critical indicator in prominent theories of the diachronic development of TS. This article aims to provide empirical and theoretical support for what one might call the orthodox position: that this text was in fact a letter originally. By means of a detailed linguistic comparison between 4QMMT and the Damascus Document, it will be shown that despite many surface similarities between these texts in terms of structure and rhetoric, they present extremely divergent grammars. This in turn raises a fundamental question: how could two texts likely produced by the same community be so different linguistically? It will be argued that the most plausible explanation is that these two texts were written in distinct registers in order to accommodate to distinct literary genres.

While the language of MMT can reasonably be called closer to the contemporary vernacular, the Damascus Document seems to be patterned after the language of the higher register of biblical narrative. From here, sociolinguistic research will be employed in an effort to show that the epistolary genre reliably reflects a lower register across languages and cultures, thereby justifying the orthodox position with respect to MMT. Abstract: Certain words in the prayer of Sir —22 that appear to be secondary exhibit nationalistic and eschatological tones that are otherwise alien to the book of Ben Sira. These elements likely reflect the interpretation and reading of the text in the course of its transmission in the first millennium CE.

Abstract: This article proposes a general re-evaluation of the archaeological site of Shahr Yeri, the most striking feature of which is the presence of over five hundred of what we may call statue-stelae. Despite the fact that the site and the statue-stelae have been known since at least and are of great archaeological interest, they have been relatively little studied in the past. The goal of this paper is to present a general review of the site and the statuestelae identified there, unique both with regard to their number and their iconographic features. An argument on the possible connection between the seals used on the so-called Gobryas texts and the Gobryas family is also of especial significance with the interesting result that the stamp was a favorable type-seal for this family.

Both of this evidence seems to suggest the Elamite and Greek personal trends of Gobryas, a fact inherited in his role in the political events of the age. To which genre does it belong? How does it relate to the literary context of its own era? The symbolism of the image chosen for overstriking Iranian coins is also discussed. Abstract: The article presents some historical evidence about the veneration of individual trees, primarily the juniper and the oak-trees, traditionally considered to be sacred in the Zaza culture, as well as generally groves and forests.

Game Theory dynamics affect uncertainty, proxy wars and the complex geopolitics of the Middle East. This often requires key players to focus on security by any means at their disposal. This study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Was this event actually a threat from the west, specifically from the US? Was there an internal criminal element operating in Iran? The investigation draws on literature and facts to analyze these impacts. This is, therefore, treated as a serious condition with potentially exponential effects on national security. Recently, scholars have identified other manuscripts of this book which comprise passages absent in previously known manuscripts.

The enlarged edition of now comprises the complete chapter on Zoroastrianism, of which only a short part was extant in the first edition. This article translates the whole chapter on Zoroastrianism, along with the vocalized Arabic original text, to make it more accessible to historians of Iranian religions. This translation is then followed by a discussion of the implications of this piece for the history of Zoroastrianism after Islam. Abstract: The late Ilkhanid period saw a florescence of intellectual and cultural production in northwestern and west-central Iran. This article argues that a regional network with its center at Isfahan contributed to this creativity through the production of translation-adaptations between Arabic and Persian. Abstract: This article examines cultural attitudes on race and African slavery in late Qajar chronicles prior to abolition in In contrast to previous scholarship, Qajar textual sources reveal that elite cultural attitudes were relevant in structuring the social conditions of enslavement in Iran.

Visual depictions and narratives about African eunuchs and concubines naturalized the violent acquisition and use of the Other. Slave narratives also bear witness to how such views of African corporeality determined the social worth of eunuchs and concubines in the domestic sphere. Thus, more often than not, the importance of union underground activity and the role played by the masses of ordinary oil workers during times of political and military repression, is overlooked.

This article examines how the particular setting of the oil town of Abadan influenced motivations of oil workers and the dynamics between them and the Tudeh. As the article aims to show, these elements were an essential part in the ability of the labor movement in Abadan to remain viable and reemerge in force in the early s as part of the oil nationalization movement. Both the production and the critical reception of this body of work have since been gradually altered, resulting in a discrepancy between two mutually exclusive tendencies in the literary representation and interpretation of the Iran—Iraq war: the ideological and the realistic, the latter introducing a narrative alternative to the former.

By openly renouncing any claim to any kind of truth, Gholami has rendered his highly technical literary creation into a narrative text that goes beyond the real to exert its undermining effect on the ideology of the Holy Defense. Abstract: What can the poetry chosen for epitaphs on graves tell us about the political and cultural development of post-revolutionary Iran and the politics of death and dying under the Islamic Republic? This article explores contemporary Persian epitaph poetry as a valuable medium for understanding the socio-political dynamics of Iranian society. Abstract: This paper proposes an exploration of the films of Iranian director Asghar Farhadi.

It employs a methodology based on textual analysis, focusing specifically on the structural design of his films and the focalization processes of his scripts. At the same time, it considers how all the focalization processes in his films are oriented toward two main concepts: knowledge of the characters, but also of the audience and pain of living in a [narrative] world afflicted by meaninglessness. Abstract: There has been very little research on family businesses FBs in Iran. Taking an institutional point of view, this article, based on a survey conducted in Iran, demonstrates that since the revolution FBs in Iran have been key intermediaries between political pressure from the top and societal trends from below. As a mode of coordination, the family business was also essential in protecting the modernization of Iranian society in promoting the role of women and the value of competency.

It was also a mode of coordination which enabled FBs to protect their property rights which were threatened by a predatory state. It holds that this concern for status is expressed at multiple levels: that of the family, as a class, and finally, of the nation. At each of these levels of expression, it is possible to trace different post-revolutionary social phenomena. These include the reification of the family as a moral unit, major shifts in the demographics of education and urbanization, the rise of a consumer culture and the perilous decline of the fortunes of the middle class, and, finally, imaginings of national exceptionalism.

This article then uses such readings of Chinese goods as a window into middle class ideologies of worth and deservingness. Abstract: A recent survey in the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains has located five new Neolithic sites. Our research indicates that the visible distribution of Neolithic sites is highly influenced by geomorphological factors. All sites are located on natural outcrops or on the edge of alluvial plains.

Many others have certainly been buried beneath layers of later sedimentation. Based on the ceramic evidence and the location of the region, between the central Zagros mountains on the east and Mesopotamia on the west, we suggest that this vast area maintained an integrated ceramic tradition, which suggests an overall cultural homogeneity of these areas during the seventh and early sixth millennia B.

Regarding the lack of eighth and seventh millennium B. This also suggests a lasting network of cross-regional communications, since archaeological discoveries prove this pathway was the main node connecting these two cultural regions for a long period of time. Excavations at the latter have produced new dietary and environmental data for the sixth millennium B. This has yielded a promising archaeobotanical assemblage and established a benchmark ceramic assemblage for the Shahrizor Plain, which is closely comparable to material known from Tell Madhhur in the Hamrin valley. The related series of radiocarbon dates gives significant new insights into the divergent timing of the Late Ubaid and early LC in northern and southern Mesopotamia.

In the following occupation horizon, a ceramic assemblage closely aligned to the southern Middle Uruk indicates convergence of material culture with central and southern Iraq as early as the LC4 period. Combined with data for the appearance of Early Uruk elements at sites in the adjacent Qara Dagh region, this hints at long-term co-development of material culture during the fourth millennium B. Abstract: This paper explores the meaning behind the two methods of sword carry depicted in the iconography of Ashurnasirpal II. Abstract: The Samarran phenomenon has been under discussion since the early 20th century. Over the past several decades, increasing evidence has indicated that it was geographically distributed in a very large area across the Near East.

In this regard, the eastward spread of the Samarran phenomenon across the Iranian frontier was little known, because related finds had mostly been recovered in the —70s. This article highlights the discovery of new evidence in the transitional zone that connects the Zagros highlands with the Mesopotamian lowlands. During recent surveys in the plains of Mehran, Meimak, Soumar and Sarpol-e Zahab, a number of sites were found. Chronologically, surface materials indicate that these newly found Iranian sites should belong to the late phase of Samarran period, coinciding with the so-called Chogha Mami Transitional CMT. Furthermore, it is speculated that the cold dry climatic event of 8. Regardless of what was the major trigger of such an expansion, however, intensive economic interactions of societies probably played a role in the very early sixth millennium B.

This paper explores the significance of the rebellion from two angles: the ideological problem of rebellion by Assyrians, and the psychological impact on Assyrian troops of killing their fellow Assyrians. Within the ideology of the royal inscriptions, Assyrians did not normally rebel against the incumbent king, who was in all ways presented as a model ruler.

Abstract: Our study establishes that two tablets from the Iraq Museum are marriage contracts dating to the Old Babylonian period and in particular from the city of Isin.

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