Essay On Observational Learning
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The children were then left in a room with the doll along with other toys. It was noticed that the children who witnessed this, behaved much more aggressively towards the doll than the control group who had observed the adult behaving placidly. The imitation and aggression were even more pronounced if the adult was observed by the children receiving a reward for his actions. However, Bandura noticed that in further experiments, children would not always imitate everyone, acknowledging that some people played a more significant role in being copied than others, thus leading on to identification Davenport, , p.
Identification — Identification takes place unconsciously over a longer period than imitation. A child will often model himself or herself on another person so that the child identifies with that person and acts as they do, this occurs in such areas as sex-role learning. Therefore in recent years, social learning has started to incorporate some cognitive theories within its framework, recognizing issues such as self-control, expectancy, and motivation Huitt et al, website. On the surface, both approaches can appear to be very similar, with them both focusing on observational techniques and addressing elements of learning, however, both are limited in the type and the amount of research that can be done to objectively test the theories further, especially when it involves human experiments.
Moreover, both approaches seem to ignore any biological factors by failing to take into account that genes can influence personalities. Social learning, like behaviorism, recognizes that learning can be an unconscious process, but unlike behaviorists, it stresses a lot of learning can be accidental and an individual can, even though a process has been learned, choose consciously not to display it. Behaviorists, on the other hand, emphasize the importance of reinforcement outlining that an individual has no control over the learning process and that an individual has to experience something in order to learn about it, conflicting with the social learning theory, that the process can merely be observed.
Both theories can be productive in a therapy situation, especially in the treatment of phobias, where observing others in the situation along with repeated exposure to the cause, can help overcome the fear. In conclusion, it can be noted that the social learning approach is a lot more complex than the behaviorist view, which has very simple learning theories. The author is of the opinion that knowledge and skills are acquired in a variety of ways and humans themselves are a lot more complex than earlier psychologists such as Pavlov seem to suggest.
At the end of the day, does human behavior amount to a theory of forced-choice? Animals may have one or two possible solutions i. Searching for an essay? Writing service. Hire Writer. Classical Conditioning and Observational Learning. Introduction to psychology October 5, Negative observational Implication on humans Observation learning in my opinion is one of the most dangerous learning tool in the youth. Media to children equals parenting and role models. They live by media, everything and anything that they do relates back to what was done on a TV show.
Since there are a lot of young girls that look up to Miley they might decide let me do the same thing because she did. Another example of negative observation is the case of a kid from Georgia was charged with murder in the death of an 8 year old girl because he was imitating a wrestling move that he saw on TV. In this situation he saw a move that he believed was cool and decided, that seems easy let me try it and now he is on trial for murder. Another negative observation is seeing how males threat females in a music video and relating it to life. This ties back to viki she repeated exactly what her trainer because she was her guardian and someone she trusted.
So she believed that what she was doing was correct.