Nicolaus Copernicus Research Paper

Tuesday, December 21, 2021 5:13:04 PM

Nicolaus Copernicus Research Paper

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Copernicus: A Revolution of Astronomical Proportions

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This made him a great image for the Renaissance since was ideal for one of its most influential topics. But what Galileo is most known for is his invention he called the telescope. He used this to help Copernicus push his theory through to the masses. As its stated here in the Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Times began to change when more and more peasants became self-sufficient and gained their freedom. Humanism was developed and times were getting better for all people. Art was one of the things that changed drastically during the Renaissance. For example, before modern astronomy was introduced many people believed that the Earth lied in the center of the universe and everything revolved around us because of the Geocentric model.

However, this was challenged when Nicolaus Copernicus formulated the Heliocentric model that placed the sun at the center of the universe. His model was said to lack provable evidence and that it went against the holy scriptures. However this was. The ethos of science was always been about seeking for the truth. Ptolemy wanted to know what was in the heavens. Newton wanted to know about motion and force. Einstein wanted to know about protons and relativity. These scientists and many others have always had that pure desire of wanting to learn the truth about what they were interested. According to Copernicus scholar Edward Rosen this wasn't exactly for scholarly purposes, but that to "show that he had not frittered his time away on wine, women, and song, he had to bring home a diploma.

That cost much less in Ferrara than in the other Italian universities where he studied. During Copernicus's lifetime, nearly everyone believed in geocentrism—the view that the Earth lies at the center of the universe. Despite that, in the s Copernicus wrote Commentariolus , or "the Little Commentary," a short text that discussed heliocentrism and was circulated amongst his friends.

It was soon found circulating further afield, and it's said that Pope Clement VII heard a talk about the new theory and reacted favorably. Some historians propose that Copernicus was worried about ridicule from the scientific community due to not being able to work out all of the issues heliocentrism created. Others propose that with the rise of the Reformation, the Catholic Church was increasingly cracking down on dissent and Copernicus feared persecution. Either way, he didn't make his complete work public until Copernicus finishing writing his book explaining heliocentrism, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium On the Revolutions of Celestial Orbs , in the s. When he was on his deathbed in , he finally decided to publish his controversial work.

According to lore, the astronomer awoke from a coma to read pages from his just-printed book shortly before passing away. Copernicus dedicated his book to the Pope, but the Catholic Church repudiated it decades after it was published, placing it on the Index of Prohibited Books—pending revision—in A few years later, the Church ended the ban after editing the text to present Copernicus's views as wholly hypothetical. In , 90 years after Copernicus's death, the Church convicted astronomer Galileo Galilei of "strong suspicion of heresy" for espousing Copernicus's theory of heliocentrism.

After a day in prison, Galileo spent the rest of his life under house arrest. Take a look at the periodic table of elements, and you might notice one with the symbol Cn. Called Copernicium, this element with atomic number was named to honor the astronomer in The element is highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope having a half life of around 30 seconds. Although Copernicus died in and was buried somewhere under the cathedral where he worked, archaeologists weren't sure of the exact location of his grave. They performed excavations in and around Frombork Cathedral, finally hitting pay dirt in by finding part of a skull and skeleton under the church's marble floor, near an altar.

It took three years to complete forensic facial reconstruction and compare DNA from the astronomer's skeleton with hair from one of his books, but archeologists were able to confirm that they had found his skeleton. Members of the Polish clergy buried Copernicus for a second time at Frombork in Historian Edward Rosen described the relationship as follows: "In establishing close contact with Novara, Copernicus met, perhaps for the first time in his life, a mind that dared to challenge the authority of [astrologist Claudius Ptolemy] the most eminent ancient writer in his chosen fields of study. In , Copernicus went on to study practical medicine at the University of Padua. He did not, however, stay long enough to earn a degree, since the two-year leave of absence from his canon position was nearing expiration.

In , Copernicus attended the University of Ferrara, where he took the necessary exams to earn his doctorate in canon law. He hurried back home to Poland, where he resumed his position as canon and rejoined his uncle at an Episcopal palace. Copernicus remained at the Lidzbark-Warminski residence for the next several years, working and tending to his elderly, ailing uncle and exploring astronomy. In , Copernicus moved to a residence in the Frombork cathedral chapter.

He would live there as a canon for the duration of his life. Throughout the time he spent in Lidzbark-Warminski, Copernicus continued to study astronomy. Among the sources that he consulted was Regiomontanus's 15th-century work Epitome of the Almagest , which presented an alternative to Ptolemy's model of the universe and significantly influenced Copernicus' research. Scholars believe that by around , Copernicus had begun developing his own celestial model, a heliocentric planetary system. During the second century A. In an attempt to reconcile such inconsistencies, Copernicus' heliocentric solar system named the sun, rather than the earth, as the center of the solar system. Subsequently, Copernicus believed that the size and speed of each planet's orbit depended on its distance from the sun.

Though his theory was viewed as revolutionary and met with controversy, Copernicus was not the first astronomer to propose a heliocentric system. Centuries prior, in the third century B. But a heliocentric theory was dismissed in Copernicus' era because Ptolemy's ideas were far more accepted by the influential Roman Catholic Church, which adamantly supported the earth-based solar system theory. Still, Copernicus' heliocentric system proved to be more detailed and accurate than Aristarchus', including a more efficient formula for calculating planetary positions. In , Copernicus' dedication prompted him to build his own modest observatory. Nonetheless, his observations did, at times, lead him to form inaccurate conclusions, including his assumption that planetary orbits occurred in perfect circles.

As German astronomer Johannes Kepler would later prove, planetary orbits are actually elliptical in shape. Around , Copernicus completed a written work, Commentariolus Latin for "Small Commentary" , a page manuscript which summarized his heliocentric planetary system and alluded to forthcoming mathematical formulas meant to serve as proof.

The sketch set forth seven axioms, each describing an aspect of the heliocentric solar system: 1 Planets don't revolve around one fixed point; 2 The earth is not at the center of the universe; 3 The sun is at the center of the universe, and all celestial bodies rotate around it; 4 The distance between the Earth and Sun is only a tiny fraction of stars' distance from the Earth and Sun; 5 Stars do not move, and if they appear to, it is only because the Earth itself is moving; 6 Earth moves in a sphere around the Sun, causing the Sun's perceived yearly movement; and 7 Earth's own movement causes other planets to appear to move in an opposite direction.

Commentariolus also went on to describe in detail Copernicus' assertion that a mere 34 circles could sufficiently illustrate planetary motion. Copernicus sent his unpublished manuscript to several scholarly friends and contemporaries, and while the manuscript received little to no response among his colleagues, a buzz began to build around Copernicus and his unconventional theories. Copernicus raised a fair share of controversy with Commentariolus and De revolutionibus orbium coelestium "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" , with the second work published right before his death.

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