Lead Exposure Research Paper
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Health Hazards of Low-level Lead Exposure to Adults
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Psychology in a general broad definition represents the scientific study of the mind and behavior. It is also a multifaceted discipline that includes many sub-fields of study ranging from human development to social-cognitive processes. One major way that Psychology studies the mind and behavior is through the use of experimental research in which experiments, correlation studies and longitudinal research is used to understand. Nonetheless, this paper will focus on the treatment for claustrophobia, a situational phobia subtype. In general, there are two types of treatments, psychological and biological.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to determine which type of CBT. From a broader context, research shows that psychotherapy is a first-line treatment, accepted as best treatment for CG M. Shear, Shear et al. Although findings showed both treatments produced improvements in CG symptoms over 16 sessions, CGT was. Mattson, S. Focused and shifting attention in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Neuropsychology, 20 3 , Summarize the claims made by the authors regarding how humans develop over their life span Prenatal exposure to heavy alcohol increases the probability of the child to have developmental problems.
One of the main problems of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is related to attention deficit. During the flu season, many people are susceptible to catching the flu. Even worst, these people may have kids that have gained this poor hygiene habit and have to go to school. For the parents with proficient hygiene, sending their kids during the most susceptible time to school is hellish to even fathom. Even though immigrants might be running from something dangers, they can also be doing a lot worst.
For example, the children do not have all the vaccines so they could be bring illnesses. What I mean is a lot of other countries do not have the money for vaccines. This is bad because some people do not have all of these vaccines yet being around kids that Might have these illnesses. That is one reason why child immigrants should leave the U. The entire idea of bipolar disorder in children and ways to diagnose and treat it needs to be research and helped because the over medication of children should not be a solution to the problem.
Children are rambunctious and everyone is different which does lead to a lot of the misdiagnosis that there are today, however as the years pass and the more common this problem seems to present itself, the more research that is being done. This will bring us closer to where we need to be in this. Lead Poisoning The way lead poisoning had widely spread is due to the lack of care that a lot of companies have stopped watching for in their lead based paints and how it is affecting kids. The reason why this poses such an issue is because there are a lot of different toy products that have lead based paint.
As documented in several different sources there are many people that are complaining to these companies, such as the Mattel Toy Company that is getting sued for many of their products because of the link to several kids with lead poisoning. Lead poisoning in children is a complex issue because exposure is varied, there are alternative ways kids can be exposed, and figuring out exactly which toys are harming children is difficult. Few people truly know how hazardous coloring materials can really be to little kids. Many off brand crayons can be very hazardous to many people because many contain trace amounts of lead.
This can led the company responsible for producing the crayons. In turn off brand crayon companies develop more of a fiscal responsibility in order to ensure the safety of their child consumers. Young children are especially at risk of …show more content… Fisher Price is in the news a lot for having products that contain lead based paints. Fisher Price is in the news due to they are a popular toy company and they do a lot of hard work to make a lot of good toy brands but their problem is that some of lead paint was coming off and it was getting into little kids bodies hurting them immensely. Zebco for their three to four year old plastic fishing. Show More. Vaccinate Children Argumentative Essay Words 4 Pages For millennia, parents have made most of their decisions with the wellbeing of their child in mind, but not all of these choices are actually beneficial for the child.
Read More. In this study, we investigated the relationships between lead poisoning and intelligence and neurobehavioral changes in 2—4-year-old children, to provide a basis for clinical prevention and treatment measures. A total of children were selected from ten kindergartens with an average age 2. The exclusion criteria we used were 1 birthing problems such as delivery injuries or a low birth weight, 2 neonatal problems such as asphyxia, intracranial hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and severe jaundice, 3 acquired disabilities including poisoning, cerebral trauma, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy and cerebral injuries following convulsions, and 4 potential factors influencing cognitive development such as malnutrition and inherited metabolic diseases.
Based on these criteria, 96 children were selected to receive blood lead level detection tests. Blood levels of lead were determined by differential potentiometric stripping analysis DPSA. A pre-coated mercury film method was used. Mercury film was pre-plated on the working electrode three times before detection, accumulating to a thickness that enabled it to work for 4 consecutive hours. Amalgam was stripped in a static mode. The samples were detected without digestion. The color of the sample changed from purplish red to yellow after addition of 1.
The color faded after addition of 0. A blank reagent was processed at the same time. The lead content in the blood sample and reagent blank was calculated by a standard addition method, and the absolute difference between the two samples was regarded as the lead content. The parents of the children in both groups were required to fill out a health questionnaire and CBCL for the children. The significance of this investigation and the project requirements were explained to the parents before they filled out the questionnaire, which was collected immediately.
The content of the health questionnaire included approximately 40 questions related to source of exposure to lead, such as the family and social environment, life and health habit, and health conditions of the children. The main risk factors for high blood lead values could be assessed through questionnaire assignment analysis. A number of well-known instruments exist for assessing and categorizing the problem behavior of children. The CBCL is a paper-based questionnaire that presents caregivers with a series of statements that relate to emotional and behavioral problems and competencies, using a 3-point response format to establish the frequency of problem behavior.
This study used the child and teenager psychological test software 2. The development schedules used in this study were a set of four timetables devised by Arnold Gesell — at Yale University to evaluate the physical, emotional, and behavioral development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. They describe typical behavior at specific ages in the following areas: ability to adapt, motor functioning, use of language, and social interaction [ 16 ]. All numerical variables in this experiment are expressed as means, standard deviations, minimum values, and maximum values. Enumeration data are expressed by case number, rate, and constituent ratio. Blood lead values between the experimental and control groups were compared using a t -test after logarithmic transformation meet normal distribution.
All test conducted were two-tailed, and the test statistic and its correspondent P value are shown. The log transformed blood lead values ranged 0. Compared with the control group, scores on the measure of developmental quotients of child adaptive behavior, gross motor performance, fine motor movements, language development, and individual social behavior lagged in the children previously exposed to lead, at The examination showed that there were 11 subjects with social withdrawal, 17 subjects with depression, 8 subjects with sleep problems, 6 subjects with atypical body actions, 34 subjects with aggressions, and 7 subjects with destructions among the 50 children in the lead poisoning group, and the rate of abnormal behavior was There were 7 subjects with social withdrawal, 4 subjects with melancholies, 5 subjects with sleep problems, 8 subjects with atypical body actions, 6 subjects with aggressions, and 5 subjects with destructions among the 50 children in the control group, and the rate of abnormal behavior was Among the more than 40 factors we examined in the questionnaire, the risk factors for lead poisoning in children included poor living habits such as finger-sucking, nail-biting, putting foreign objects in the mouth, playing with plasticine, and using colored tableware frequently.
They also included eating puffed food, preserved eggs, and canned food, smoking by a family member, living near a large road, and recent room decoration. Lead is a neurotoxin with no physiological functions in the human body, the ideal concentration of which in the blood is zero. However, because of the prevalence of lead in the environment, lead exists in the vast majority of human bodies.
With the rapid development of industrialization, the production and use of lead, and its accumulative release, there has been a rapid increase in lead levels in the environment [ 17 , 18 ]. Children are very sensitive to lead poisoning because of their metabolism and growth characteristics. Lead can easily penetrate the brains of children because their blood—brain barriers are not fully developed. Research has shown that the blood—brain barrier of newborn rats is highly permeable to lead, and that the younger the subject is, the greater is the permeability. The amounts of lead penetrating the blood—brain barriers of day-old and day-old rats were 2.
Lead poisoning can have continuous damaging effects on children, influencing the development of nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, urological, reproductive, and endocrine systems, with the most sensitive to lead poisoning being the nervous system [ 20 , 21 ]. That lead poisoning can impair the IQ of children has been verified by many Chinese and international scholars. Research by Schnass et al. A high level of lead in the blood has adverse effects on intellectual development in children. A study by Miranda et al. The earliest and most obvious influences of lead on the nervous system of children include neurobehavioral changes except for a decline in intelligence.
It has been verified that lead exposure is associated with childhood behavior disorders [ 25 ]. Behavioral changes in 1—3-year-old children have been associated with low levels of lead exposure, which indicates that behavior disorders should be clinically monitored in children that have even low levels of lead exposure [ 26 ]. Lewendon et al. Mendola et al. Researchers also found recently that antisocial behavior, behavior disorders, and adolescent crime in childhood and adolescence are also related to lead exposure before and after birth [ 29 — 32 ].