The Tell-Tale Heart Interpretation
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The tell tale heart (summary and analysis)
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Fascism is commonly associated with the Italian and German regimes that came to power after World War I, though other countries have also been ruled by fascist regimes. Certain aspects of fascist rhetoric and political organization have shifted in the decades that followed World War II. And fascism has further evolved in the political landscape of the 21st century. However, core fascist ideologies and goals espoused by the likes of Hitler and Mussolini are still present in populist organizations today, and continue to shape fascist movements in countries around the world. Related: Dictator deaths: How 13 notorious leaders died. Mussolini coined the term "fascism" in The word "fascism" comes from the Italian "fascio," meaning a bundle or group, and is considered a term for a militant brotherhood.
The word "fasces" means an ax tightly bound with sticks, an image that became a symbol of the fascist movement, according to the History Department at King's College in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. How is fascism defined? Robert Paxton, a professor emeritus of social science at Columbia University in New York, who is widely considered the father of fascism studies, told Live Science that fascism is "a form of political practice distinctive to the 20th century that arouses popular enthusiasm by sophisticated propaganda techniques.
Historically, fascists have opposed modernization "if that term means liberalism, democracy, Marxism, individualism, and feminism," said historian Chris Wright, an adjunct assistant professor at City University of New York. On the other hand, fascists have favorited modernization "if the term means technological and economic advancement, military superiority, efficiency, and the glorification of speed and machines," Wright wrote in the essay " Reflections on Fascism ," published on ResearchGate in , which has not yet been peer-reviewed. Related: Who was Karl Marx? Fascism, however, promotes the concept of innate inequality and inescapable social hierarchies between groups, Burley said.
Underlying this hierarchy is the idea that a person's rank in society is determined by aspects of identity that are beyond their control, such as ethnicity or gender, Burley explained. Fascism always takes on the individual characteristics of the country it is in, leading to very different regimes. For instance, Paxton wrote in "The Five Stages of Fascism" that "religion … would play a much greater role in authentic fascism in the United States" than it would in the more secular Europe.
Further complicating matters, nonfascist governments have often mimicked elements of fascist regimes to give the appearance of force and national vitality, Paxton said. For example, mass mobilizations of citizens in colored shirts do not automatically equate to a fascist political practice, he said. The prevalence of the word "fascism" in common vernacular also causes definitional problems. In recent years, the term "is used more often as a political insult than as a historically-informed analytical term," according to The Lowy Institute , an Australian think tank in Sydney.
And while all fascist movements are far right, not all far right movements are fascist, Burley said. Related: What is antifa? Unlike most other political, social or ethical philosophies — such as communism, capitalism, conservatism, liberalism or socialism — fascism does not have a set philosophy. As Paxton wrote, "There was no 'Fascist Manifesto,' no founding fascist thinker. Though fascism's definition can be elusive, all fascist movements share some core beliefs and actions. Fascism requires some basic allegiances, such as to the nation and to a gatekeeping "master race" or group. The core principle — what Paxton defined as fascism's only definition of morality — is to make the nation stronger, more powerful, larger and more successful. Since fascists see national strength as the only thing that makes a nation "good," fascists will use any means necessary to achieve that goal.
As a result, fascists aim to use the country's assets to increase the country's strength. This often leads to a nationalization of assets, and in this, fascism resembles Marxism — an anti-capitalist economic, philosophical and political framework of beliefs that promote a classless society, according to the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University in California.
Guided by the principle of extreme nationalism, fascist regimes tend to perform similar actions, though the particulars differ, author George Orwell wrote in his essay " What Is Fascism? Fascists also excel at propaganda, using it as a tool to scapegoat certain groups; however, those groups may differ from country to country. For instance, the Nazi regime demonized Jews and other ethnic minorities, such as the Romani people, while Mussolini's Italian regime targeted Bolsheviks — radical, far-left Marxists. Mussolini worked regularly with Jews, and his mistress, Margherita Sarfatti, was Jewish, though she later converted to Catholicism. Because of Mussolini's alliance with Hitler, he did eventually incorporate antisemitic components into his regime, and Sarfatti fled Italy in after Mussolini began passing antisemitic legislation, according to the Jewish Women's Archive.
But overall, Mussolini differed from Hitler on the subject of biological racism. Related: What are the different types of governments? Paxton also said that fascism is based more on feelings than philosophical ideas which may explain why fascism can be hard to define. In his essay " The Five Stages of Fascism ," published in in the Journal of Modern History, he defined seven "mobilizing passions" for fascist regimes.
They are:. Once in power, "fascist dictatorships suppressed individual liberties, imprisoned opponents, forbade strikes, authorized unlimited police power in the name of national unity and revival, and committed military aggression," Paxton wrote. Mussolini's fascism mixed extreme nationalist expansion with social programs like women's suffrage and workers' rights, accumulating power by forming alliances with conservatives and existing government factions. According to the AHA , in Italy in , strong-arm squads known as the Blackshirt Militia, who were financed by industrialists, fought socialist farmer organizations, conducted raids on socialist newspapers and occupied socialist-led towns. They threatened to march on Rome in The government tried to placate Mussolini by naming him prime minister, but in , he established himself as dictator.
What followed was violent suppression of dissent; the deification of Mussolini; violent expansion into Ethiopia, Albania and other countries; and in , alliance with Nazi Germany and participation in World War II. Hitler learned many lessons from Mussolini, including the importance of propaganda and violence. In the s, he led his Nazi Party to prominence through dramatic speeches, grand entrances and passionate rhetoric against Jews, Marxists, liberals and internationalists — those who support social and economic collaboration between nations, Paxton wrote.
By the summer, Hitler's rule had become a dictatorship. In violation of the Versailles Treaty, Hitler rearmed Germany and began invading neighboring lands. The invasion of Poland on Sept. Q—[Jesus said,] I was a witness over them during my time among them. Ever since You took my soul, You alone have been the watcher over them: You are witness to all things. Q—[Jesus said,] Peace was on me the day I was born, and will be on me the day I die and the day I am raised to life again.
A few observations may be made about this selection of verses. Scholars are divided over the interpretation of these verses, however, due to the difficulty of the verb tawaffa in each. If Jesus could in principle die, the focal question becomes whether crucifixion—as attested in the Gospels and affirmed by historical scholars—was the cause. The locus classicus of the debate is Q, for which various translations are provided below:.
And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain. The underlined portion represents the fundamental exegetical challenge of the verse. Notably, both of these exegetical options allow room for difference of opinion regarding whether Jesus could in theory or actually did die a physical death; where they agree, of course, is denying the possibility that, even if Jesus as Messenger and Messiah could die, he certainly did not die through crucifixion at the hands of the Jews.
But before doing so, let us explore why this mainstream Islamic creed has been so persistent. There is a prima facie appeal to this explanation. Against this backdrop, it is argued that Muslim interpreters have maintained the denial of the crucifixion out of a combination of a disinterest in reconstructing the historical Jesus negative aspect and a strong desire to make a theological statement about Allah positive aspect. If the preceding explanatory frameworks are inadequate to account for why traditional Islamic teaching so strongly clings to the denial of the crucifixion, what may account for it? The broader context of the key passage indicates that the most sound reading of Q is that it functions as a polemic against the Jews, not as a denial of a historical fact about Jesus or doctrine of Christianity.
That is simply not the point of the passage. Whether or not the crucifixion actually happened in Jerusalem is not the focus of the passage at all. Consider three scholarly samples:. The meaning of verse is best understood not as a statement of historical fact about Jesus but, rather, as a rebuke of the Jews.